An IPO is often flagged as a complicated process in the first run. Well, the credit goes to its key terms and technicities. Here is a little help from us to make you aware of a few key IPO terms that will further smoothen your road towards the ‘IPO Talk’.
A condensed version of the Initial Public Offering prospectus that contains all the salient features of the main prospectus. Under the Companies Act of 1956, every IPO application form should be accompanied by an abridged prospectus.
Draft Red Herring Prospectus (DRHP)
The draft prospectus was submitted by the company to the Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI) at least 21 days before the IPO. SEBI reviews the prospectus and requests changes during these 21 days. The general public can also submit their comments to SEBI during this period.
Red Herring Prospectus
The final prospectus was filed by the company with the Registrar of Companies (ROC) before launching the Initial Public Offering.
It contains all the information that investors need about the company and the IPO, including the company’s business description, management credentials, operating details, future strategy, IPO price band, the intended use of the proceeds, and the IPO calendar. The prospectus is also known as the offer document.
The price range within which investors can bid for IPO shares. It is set jointly by the company and the underwriter and is different for each investor category, viz. qualified institutional buyers (QIBs), retail investors, and high net-worth individuals (HNIs).
It is generally the lowest for retail investors (i.e. private individuals). If the price band has been fixed at Rs.100-110 per share, you cannot bid below Rs.100 or above Rs. 110.
Book Building Process
The process of deciding the issue price for an IPO is based on the prices bid by investors. The issue price will be closer to the upper end of the price band if investors have shown strong interest in the IPO and bid high. Otherwise, it will be closer to the lower end of the band.
For example, if the price band for an IPO is Rs. 100-110 per share, the issue price would be set closer to Rs. 110 if investors have bid high. If investors have bid low, the issue price would be set closer to Rs. 100.
This is the first date when you can apply for shares in an IPO. It is also known as the opening date of an Initial Public Offering.
The minimum number of shares you can bid for in an IPO. If you want to bid for more shares, it has to be in multiples of the size of the lot. For example, if the lot size for an IPO is 1500 shares, you have to bid for at least these many. If you want to bid for more, it should be in multiples of 1500, such as 3000 and 4,500.
This is the minimum percentage of IPO shares that retail investors need to subscribe to for an IPO to go through. At present, the minimum subscription is 90%. The company has to refund the entire subscription amount if this 90% threshold is not met.
Also read: All about Grey Market & Grey Market Premium
The minimum price per share that you can bid when applying for an Initial Public Offering is called the Floor Price. In the case of IPOs with a price band, this is the lower limit of the price band.
The price at which shares are allotted to investors once the book building process is over. The issue price is different for each investor category and is generally the lowest for retail investors. It is also called offer price at times.
This is the lowest issue price at which shares are allotted in an IPO. It is generally reserved for retail investors. If your bidding price is higher than the cut-off price, the difference will be refunded to you.
An Initial Public Offering is oversubscribed if investors have bid for more shares than offered by the company.
The excess subscription amount received by the company in case of an oversubscribed IPO is called oversubscription.
An investment bank works closely with the issuing company to manage the IPO. They’re called underwriters. Among their many jobs are deciding the offer price, marketing the IPO, and distributing the shares to investors. The underwriter receives an underwriting fee in return for its services.
This is the date on which IPO shares start trading on the stock exchange. You can sell the shares you received in the IPO and buy the company’s shares if you don’t receive them in the Initial Public Offering. (Source: Edelweiss)